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TAM – Terminology

AUDIENCE
The number of people or households exposed to a medium (television channel). The measurement of exposure does not reveal anything whether the audience has seen, heard or read a particular advertisement or editorial content of a particular message transmission over the measure. For electronic media, this would be the number of TV devices in use during the study period, or the number of the owners of these TV devices.
RATING
Rating is the standard the advertising industry uses as the measurement unit of the potential audience of television programs or channels. It is the “product” of measurement, for which advertisers pay. A rating is the percentage value of all those persons who watch a program or a TV channel, expressed as a percentage of the total universe of people who have TV sets in their homes, or simply have access to a TV set. So, the universe here is almost the entire population.
Formula: Rating = [(HUT* x Share)/ x 100]
* HUT = Households Using TV
NATIONAL RATING
One rating point for all households or individuals tuned in to a nationwide broadcast program. Sometimes, the measurement basis level is the number of all households with a TV set in the country. Meanwhile, in other cases, the measurement basis level is just the number of those dwellings that can tune in to a given TV program, because the latter are served by a cable system that broadcasts the program in question.
SHARE
Share is the measurement unit for those persons tuned in to a TV program, or a fixed TV channel, expressed as a percentage value, of all those TV devices resulting to be turned on by the respective demographic group under study at a specific period of time. Share, or Share of Audience (Market Share of Audience) – The audience for a given TV program expressed as a percentage of all households using television (HUT) during the broadcast of a program.
Formula: Share** = [(Rating/HUT) x 100]
** Share, or Share of Audience – The audience of a given TV program expressed as a percentage of all households using TV (HUT) during the broadcast of such a program.
Therefore, Share is the percentage value of this universe and not the entire universe of potential audience, or households. In this way, Share is the measurement unit that shows what audience is available at a given moment in time.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RATING AND SHARE
While Share is calculated from the universe of TV sets tuned in at a certain moment in time, Rating is calculated from the total universe, regardless of the status of TV set usage at that particular moment in time. Consequently, the sum of Ratings at any given time adds up to the HUT level. So the Ratings total value, most likely, will not add up to 100%. If they will add up to 100%, then, this means that each person would tune in his/her own TV set at the same time or would watch the same TV set at the same time.
CUME/REACH
Number of persons or households exposed to various media vehicles or a specific media schedule at least once. This is usually measured over a period of time (e.g., a specific daypart during a day, one week, four weeks, and so on). Also known as Cume (Cumulative, or Net Unduplicated Audience).
DAYPART
A segment of the broadcast day, labeled this way for analytical purposes. In TV, the most commonly used dayparts are morning and afternoon, early access, late fringe, prime time and night.
PEOPLE METER
An electronic device that measures the viewership of TV programs. The information collected from these types of metering equipment reflects in real-time the collected viewing data of persons watching a particular TV program.
ATS – AVERAGE TIME SPENT VIEWING
ATS is the average time spent by individuals watching a particular TV program, daypart or other specific time segment during the broadcast of a specific TV channel.